Aktualizacja: '2020



UNESCO
Grecja



Grecja kontynentalna:


Stanowisko archeologiczne w Delfach (K I, II, III, IV, VI / 1987) Sanktuarium panhelleńskie w Delfach, gdzie przemawiała wyrocznia Apollina, mieściło Omfalós, “pępek świata". Przesiąknięte uświęconymi treściami, harmonijnie wtopione we wspaniały krajobraz, w V w. p.n.e. stanowiło prawdziwe centrum i symbol jedności Grecji.





Akropol w Atenach (K I, II, III, IV, VI / 1987) Akropol w Atenach, na którym wznoszą się cztery arcydzieła klasycznej sztuki greckiej: Partenon, Propyleje, Erechteion oraz świątynia Nike Apteros, stanowi wykładnię cywilizacji, mitów i religii starożytnej Grecji na przestrzeni przeszło tysiąca lat i może być uznany za symbol idei światowego dziedzictwa





Góra Athos (N III / K I, II, IV, V, VI / 1988) Od 1054 “Święta Góra", bez prawa wstępu dla kobiet i dzieci, stanowi środek duchowy prawosławia, a od czasów bizantyjskich posiada statut autonomiczny. Jest to również ważny ośrodek artystyczny. Wzorcowy plan klasztorów (obecnie, w około dwudziestu klasztorach żyje 1400 mnichów) rozprzestrzenił się aż po Rosję, zaś tamtejsza szkoła malarska odcisnęła piętno na historii sztuki prawosławnej.





Meteora (N III / K I, II, IV, V / 1988) W regionie prawie niedostępnych, granitowych szczytów, pierwsi eremici zamieszkali na “podniebnych kolumnach" już w XI w. W XV w., w okresie odnowy ideału pustelniczego, za cenę ogromnego wysiłku zbudowano tam dwadzieścia cztery klasztory. Ich XVI- wieczne freski stanowią istotny etap w rozwoju malarstwa postbizantyjskiego.





Zabytki wczesnochrześcijańskie i bizantyjskie w Salonikach (K I, II, IV / 1988) Saloniki, założone w r. 315 p.n.e., stolica prowincji rzymskiej i miasto portowe, było jednym z pierwszych ośrodków rozprzestrzeniania się chrześcijaństwa. Spośród zabytków tego okresu należy wyróżnić kościoły na planie centralnym, bazylikowym lub łączącym cechy ich obu, powstałe pomiędzy IV i XV w., stanowiące diachroniczną serię typologiczną, która miała znaczny wpływ w świecie bizantyjskim. Mozaiki rotundy (przebudowanej na kościół Św. Jerzego), kościołów Św. Demetriusza i Św. Dawida należą do arcydzieł sztuki wczesnochrześcijańskiej.





Zagorochoria – North Pindos National Park
Tentative list

Zagori (“the place behind the mountains”, from the Slavic za “behind” and gora “mountain”) constitutes a distinctive geographic and cultural unit of great architectural and environmental interest. Its own inhabitants divide it, based on the natural boundaries traced by the local rivers, into four subunits: Vlachozagoro, Lakka Zagoriou (the villages in the Zagoritikos river valley), the Villages of the Ano Vikos Valley and the Villages of the Voidomatis Valley. These four subunits form a single territorial unit, Zagori. Its first settlements, its oldest core, lie in the west part of present-day Zagori (Papigo and Pedina). The two other parts developed later. Most of the modern villages were established during the Ottoman period, while most of the villages of East Zagori were founded in the 15th century. A



National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Souflion
Tentative list

Situated at the southeast end of the Rhodope mountain range, at the crossroads of two continents, the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest (DNP) is of exceptional ecological significance at European level. Characterised by a rich habitat mosaic on a network of low hills in a transitional climate zone between the Mediterranean and the continental, the DNP extends over an area of 42,800ha in Evros Prefecture. It is located at the easternmost edge of a huge forested area that extends all the way west and north along the Rhodope mountain range, while major forested areas are absent for hundreds of kilometres eastwards. Pine trees predominate in the area of the National Park, forming coniferous forests of Pinus brutia, with P. nigra found at the lowest altitudes of its known distribution, while mixed and deciduous forests also occur over a large expanse. Geologically, the northern part of the DNP is dominated by Tertiary ophiolith complexes, while the south mainly consists of Paleogene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The location of the DNP, on one of the most important migration routes for birds of the Western Palearctic, makes this forest one of the few regions in Europe cohabitated by 36 out of the 38 European raptor species, where three of the four European species of vulture (Aegypius monachus, Neophron percnopterus and Gyps fulvus) co-exist. The resident Black Vulture population in particular is of great importance, as it is the last remnant of an initially large population of the species within the Balkan region, while the presence of the endangered Egyptian vulture is also significant.



Klasztory Dafni w Attyce, Osios Loukas w Beocji i Nea Moni na Chios (K I, IV / 1990) Trzy oddalone od siebie geograficznie klasztory- pierwszy w Attyce, koło Aten, drugi w Fokidzie, w okolicach Delf, a trzeci na jednej z wysp Morza Egejskiego, w pobliżu Azji Mniejszej- należą do tej samej serii typologicznej i posiadają podobne cechy estetyczne. Zbudowane są na planie centralnym i przekryte wielką kopułą wspartą na narożnych trompach, umożliwiających przejście do planu ośmiobocznego. W XI i XII w. zostały ozdobione wspaniałą dekoracją z marmuru oraz pięknymi mozaikami na złotym tle, charakterystycznymi dla “drugiego renesansu bizantyjskiego".





Stanowiska archeologiczne w Verginie (K I, III / 1996) Dawna Aigai, pierwsza stolica królestwa Macedonii, została odkryta w XIX w. w pobliżu Verginy, w północnej Grecji. Do najstarszych zabytków należą ruiny monumentalnego pałacu o bogatej dekoracji mozaikowej i polichromowanych stiukach oraz nekropola, na której znajduje się przeszło trzysta kopców grobowych, niektóre pochodzące z XI w. Jeden z grobów królewskich Wielkiego Kopca został zidentyfikowany jako grobowiec Filipa II, władcy, który podbił wszystkie miasta-państwa greckie, torując drogę swemu synowi Aleksandrowi oraz ekspansji świata hellenistycznego.





Stanowiska archeologiczne w Mykenach i Tirynsie (K I, II, III, IV, VI / 1999) W Mykenach i Tirynsie pozostały imponujące ruiny dwóch największych miast cywilizacji mykeńskiej, panującej od XV do XII w. p.n.e. we wschodniej części basenu Morza Śródziemnego i która odegrała istotną rolę w rozwoju kultury Grecji klasycznej. Te dwa miasta są nierozerwalnie związane z Iliadą i Odyseją, dwiema epopejami homeryckimi, które od przeszło trzech tysiącleci wywierają ogromny wpływ na literaturę i sztukę.





Archaeological Site of Philippi (2016) The remains of this walled city lie at the foot of an acropolis in north-eastern Greece, on the ancient route linking Europe and Asia, the Via Egnatia. Founded in 356 BC by the Macedonian King Philip II, the city developed as a “small Rome” with the establishment of the Roman Empire in the decades following the Battle of Philippi, in 42 BCE. The vibrant Hellenistic city of Philip II, of which the walls and their gates, the theatre and the funerary heroon (temple) are to be seen, was supplemented with Roman public buildings such as the Forum and a monumental terrace with temples to its north. Later the city became a centre of the Christian faith following the visit of the Apostle Paul in 49-50 CE. The remains of its basilicas constitute an exceptional testimony to the early establishment of Christianity.





Ancient Lavrion
Tentative list

The Lavreotiki area, at the SE end of Attica, was the largest silver-mining centre in both ancient and modern Greece. The mine workings cover an area of 120 km2, from Mt Paneion in Keratea to Cape Sounio and Legraina. Most of the Lavreotiki is protected by law and is a designated archaeological site, an area of outstanding natural beauty and a historical site, while the area around Sounio is a National Forest planted in the mid-20th century (Natura 2000 site totalling 36,000 m2, of which 4,900 m2 are its core). Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) cover most of the forest. The flora also includes Mediterranean plants such as wild olive trees, strawberry trees, lentisc, kermes oak, cyclamen and an endemic species of knapweed (Centaurea laureotica), while the local fauna consists of various reptiles, mammals such as hedgehogs, hares and foxes, and many bird species. The forest also contains the impressive “Chaos” sinkhole, a basin-shaped karstic depression 55 m deep and 120 m in diameter. The Lavreotiki is a mineral and chemical museum, as its subsoil contains over 265 types of mineral, 6.8% of those known worldwide. Of these, the silver and lead ores (cerussite, galena) were heavily exploited in both ancient and modern times, while zinc and iron-manganese ores were particularly mined in the latter.

Archaeological site of Nikopolis
Tentative list

The city, with the fortification walls and the cemeteries, occupies a fertile strip of land between the Ionian Sea to the west and the Ambracian Gulf to the east, where two of the three city harbours were located. The third harbour ran along both sides of the inlet known as Ormos Vathy at the north edge of the modern city of Preveza. The city occupies an area of approximately 375 acres. The plan of the city was the rectangular grid with the Decumanus (the main east-west street) and the Cardo (main north-south street) intersecting at its centre. Nikopolis was planned within walls with four main gates at the compass points. The southern quarters of the city were mainly composed of residential houses but also included the Odeion, while the northern section saw the construction of the Monument of Augustus, the Theatre, the Gymnasium and the Stadium. This area, known to ancient writers as the “Suburb”, is located outside the Roman fortification walls, on the hills, with a magnificent view of the Ionian sea and the Preveza peninsula. The city had a very effective water-supply system. An impressive 50-km-long aqueduct, consisting of a series of arches (arcade) and tunnels, carried water from the Louros springs to the Nymphaeum, from where it was distributed within the city.

The broader region of Mount Olympus
Tentative list

Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece (the highest peak is 2,918 m. above sea level), rises on the border of Macedonia and Thessaly, between the provinces of Pieria and Larissa. Owing to its specific microclimate, which is partly due to the short distance from the sea and the steep increase in height above sea level, it stands out for its great diversity in terrain, climate and vegetation. The shape of the massif and the majestic peaks, covered in fog and low-hanging clouds, which often bring storms, in conjunction with its diverse and changeable natural beauty, have always induced awe and admiration. In this eerie landscape, the ancient Greeks placed the residence of the Twelve Gods of Olympus (with Zeus at their head), the Muses and the Graces. There, according to Hesiod, Zeus fought Cronus and the Titans and, after winning, settled there and became lord all the gods, demigods and humans. The myths and traditions collected by Homer and Hesiod were passed on throughout the ancient Greek and Roman world, making Olympus the epicentre of ancient Greek mythology and a symbol of Greek civilization. According to ancient Greek tradition, the twelve gods lived in the gorges – or ‘folds of Olympus’ as Homer calls them – where their palaces were situated. On the highest peak was the throne of Zeus.

The Area of the Prespes Lakes: Megali and Mikri Prespa which includes Byzantine and post-Byzantine monuments
Tentative list

The Prespa National Park (PNP) is situated in Northwest Greece, in the Region of West Macedonia; it covers an area of 327km2 and is part of the Transboundary Prespa Park, which is shared between Greece, Albania and FYROM. The PNP consists of the lakes, Megali and Mikri Prespa, and the lake basin which extends to the tops of the surrounding mountains. The two lakes are separated by a narrow isthmus called “Koula”. Mikri Prespa has a maximum depth of 8.4 m and covers an area of 47.7 km2, of which 43.5 km2 belong to Greece and 3.9 km2 to Albania. Megali Prespa is 55m deep and covers an area of 259.4 km2 which is divided between Greece, Albania and FYROM. The PNP has approximately 1,500 inhabitants. The region of Prespa preserves various monuments and many remains of settlements created through the long-term human presence in the area. The archaeological data show that people have lived in the Prespa valley for over four thousand years, but documented human presence does not emerge until the 2nd century BC. Inscriptions found on the island of Agios Achilleios, dated to the Hellenistic era, refer to Julius Crispus and the independent city of Lyca. In Classical times the Prespa region formed part of ancient Lyncus, and the lakes were called Little and Great Brygeis. In 148 BC Prespa became part of the Roman Province of Upper Macedonia. In the Early Christian period it belonged to Macedonia Deutera as a part of Illyricum Prefecture. In the late 8th and early 9th century AD the region belonged to the Theme of Thessaloniki. In the 10th century, Agios Achilleios became the first seat of Czar Samuel Comitopoulos’ government. He founded the basilica of Agios Achilleios, in which he placed the relics of Saint Achilleios. In 1018 the Byzantine Emperor Basil II reconquered the territory, built two fortresses, Vasilida and Konstantion, and established the seat of the Archbishop of Ohrid. In 1072 the Alamani and Franks passed through Prespa and ravaged the church of St Achilleios. In the 12th century Prespa was referred to as Province of Prespes in the chrysobull of Alexios III Angelus. For a while, the region of Prespa remained under the control of the Despot of Epirus, Michael II Angelus, before passing into the rule of the Emperor of Nicaea, Michael VIII Palaeologus. During the 14th century Prespa was incorporated into the kingdom of Stephen Dusan and was conquered in circa 1386 by the Ottomans. The region remained under their rule for 526 years.

Peloponez:


Świątynia Apollina Epikuriosa w Bassai (K I, II, III / 1986) Ta słynna świątynia boga Słońca i uzdrowiciela została zbudowana w połowie V w. p.n.e. na pustkowiu wyżynnej Arkadii. Budowla, w której znajduje się najstarszy zachowany kapitel koryncki, wyróżnia się śmiałością architektoniczną i łączy sztukę archaiczną z pogodnym stylem doryckim.





Stanowisko archeologiczne w Epidauros (K I, II, III, IV, VI / 1988) W niewielkiej dolinie Peloponezu, Epidauros rozciąga się na kilku poziomach. W VI w. p.n.e. wprowadzono tam kult Asklepiosa, ale główne zabytki- przede wszystkim teatr, uważany za jedno z najczystszych arcydzieł architektury greckiej- pochodzą z IV w. Obszar sanktuarium, obejmujący świątynie i zabudowania szpitalne poświęcone bogom uzdrowicielom, stanowi cenne świadectwo kultów o charakterze terapeutycznym świata hellenistycznego i rzymskiego.





Mistra (K II, III, IV / 1989) Mistra, “cud Morei", została wybudowana na planie amfiteatralnym, wokół twierdzy wzniesionej w 1249 r. przez księcia Achai, Wilhelma de Villehardouin. Miasto, zdobyte przez Bizancjum, a później okupowane przez Turków i Wenecjan, zostało całkowicie opuszczone w 1832 r. Pozostał jedynie imponujący zespół średniowiecznych ruin na tle malowniczego krajobrazu.





Olimpia- stanowisko archeologiczne (K I, II, III, IV, VI / 1989) Olimpia, położona w dolinie Peloponezu, była zamieszkała od czasów prahistorycznych. W X w. stała się ośrodkiem kultu Zeusa. W gaju zwanym Altis- sanktuarium bogów- znajdowały się liczne arcydzieła antycznej Grecji. Oprócz świątyń, znajdują się tam również ruiny różnych urządzeń sportowych służącym igrzyskom olimpijskim, odbywającym się co cztery lata począwszy od r. 776 p.n.e.





Archaeological site of Ancient Messene
Tentative list

The archaeological site of ancient Messene lies in a fertile valley approximately in the centre of the Regional Unit of Messenia, south of Mt Ithome. Ithome was the strongest natural and manmade fortress of Messenia, controlling the valleys of Stenyclaros to the north and Makaria to the south. (Strabo compares it to Corinth as regards strategic importance). The first installation on the site dates to the Late Neolithic or the Early Bronze Age, while in the 9th-8th c. BC the cult of Zeus Ithomatas was established on the peak of Mt Ithome. A heroon shrine was founded in the lower city during the Geometric period (800-700 BC), along with the first sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, Asklepios and Messene. All the sacred buildings belonged to a town named Ithome. The Spartan annexation of the area following the First Messenian War (743-724 BC) put a stop to the evolution of the town into a more complex urban organism and the development of an urban outlook. The Spartan occupation, however, did not result in a total loss of national consciousness among the inhabitants, who were now helots. The city of Ancient Messene was founded in 369 BC by the Theban general Epaminondas (after the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, which resulted in Spartan defeat and the establishment of the Theban Hegemony). It became the capital of the free Messenian state following a long period (about four centuries) of occupation of the Messenian territory by the Spartans.

Late Medieval Bastioned Fortifications in Greece
Tentative list

With the appearance and establishment, in the 15th century, of the use of gunpowder, a new, powerful and destructive means of warfare, city fortification practices changed. Since medieval fortifications were unable to withstand the constantly increasing artillery power, additional defensive structures began to be added to existing fortresses. This change was completed in the 16th century, establishing the “bastion system” or “fronte bastionato”, based on the principle of “flanking fire”. In the 17th century, the need to confront even greater artillery firepower led to the construction of a multitude of smaller fortifications outside the main moat, whose aim was to keep the enemy as far away as possible from the main fortifications. Finally, up to the end of the 18th century, fortification architecture would continue to be based on the principles of the 16th century, while of course following the development of artillery. This development is documented by a series of fortifications on Greek territory. These fortifications are mostly found in areas that passed into Latin hands, such as the Peloponnese, the coasts of Western Greece, the Ionian Islands, Crete and the Dodecanese. Most were built on the site of older, ancient and/or Byzantine fortifications, but their main phase was constructed during the various phases of Latin domination. These are particularly well-preserved fortification works, which largely retain their integrity and original layout intact to the present day. This is very significant, given that they were built by the leading engineers of the time and closely follow developments in the field of defensive art. In recent years restoration projects for their protection and enhancement have taken place preserving however their particular character and their relation to the surrounding area. The fortifications also contribute to the study of the urban areas of which they form a part, providing valuable information on the organisation of urban planning, which they determined in several cases. The proposed fortifications are strategically positioned on the hubs of the trade routes between West and East and also North and South, and therefore played an important part as trading stations in the East Mediterranean basin.

Wpisy łączone - Grecja:


Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea
Tentative list

The numerous ancient towers scattered across many Aegean islands (Amorgos, Andros, Thasos, Ikaria, Kea, Kythnos, Mykonos, Naxos, Serifos, Sifnos, Skiathos, Paros, Tinos, etc.) and the mainland, constitute a particular type of ancient building with various uses. The vast majority of the towers are dated to around the mid-4th c. BC and up to the first quarter of the 3rd c. BC. Despite their numbers and dispersal, they present common architectural features, such as their circular, square or rectangular plan and their sturdy construction of local stone. The towers were built in non-urban areas, in order to serve a wide range of needs depending on circumstances and location. The main motive for their construction was defence in the wider sense, i.e. the protection of people, animals and goods. The towers sometimes formed part of a wider system of defences and refuges, while others functioned as watchtowers and lighthouses. They are also often found in areas where mining activities are attested. One notable use of towers is as points in an early communication system consisting of networks of beacons (fryktoriai), for the transmission of light signals between towers in direct line of sight, in some cases covering extremely wide geographical areas. Sometimes the towers formed the main building of farmhouses owned by wealthy citizens. Towers of later date in the Cyclades, built to serve similar needs, are almost identical parallels to these. A multitude of ancient towers, dominating the characteristic island landscape, are preserved in the Aegean. Many preserve their integrity to a striking degree, while a major project for their restoration and promotion has been undertaken in recent years.

  • Cheimarros Tower, Naxos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Naxos 25.519974E, 36.995901N

  • Tower of Agios Petros, Andros: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Andros 24.759528E, 37.894729N

  • Tower of Agia Triada, Arkesini, Amorgos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Naxos 25.801391E ,36.792445N

  • White Tower, Siphnos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Melos 24.738005E, 36.932551N

  • White Tower, Serifos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Melos 24.451975E, 37.147270N

  • Tower of Agia Marina, Kea: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Kea-Kythnos 24.303191E, 37.616622N

  • Drakanou Tower, Ikaria: Region of North Aegean, Regional Unit of Samos 26.361214E, 37.687285N

  • Tower of Kastellorizo: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Rhodes 29.576937E, 36.147995N

  • Tower of Ro: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Rhodes 29.502804E, 36.156801N

  • Tower of Strongyli: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Rhodes 29.630578E,36.107820N



  • Ancient Greek Theatres
    Tentative list

    Theatre construction is a concept and an architectural achievement of Greek civilisation: a plain structure in which coexist, in a balanced and complete manner, functionality and excellent aesthetics. An indispensable element of every urban centre from the Classical period onwards, theatres were set in the centre of political, social and religious life: the acropolis, the agora, the stadium, the bouleuterion, the sanctuaries. Theatres were distinguished by their simplicity of design, with a circular or semicircular seating layout, which, combined with the height difference between the tiers, achieved a unique combination of an unimpeded view and excellent acoustics. The seats of the cavea were usually adapted to the side of a natural hill, its centre dug out of the earth or rock and banked up on the sides, while in some cases, albeit rare, an artificial elevation was created on level ground in order to form the basis of the cavea seating. Early, wooden theatral structures are dated to the 6th c. BC and are known only from literary sources and vase-painting. Stone structures are found from the 5th c. onwards, while Greek theatres attained their full architectural form in the 4th c. BC, consisting of three discrete parts: the audience seating area (cavea), the orchestra and the stage building (scaenae frons), which became ever more complex to meet evolving dramatic needs. Most theatres had stone seats divided into wedge-shaped sections (cunei) by staircases made of the same material. The cavea is divided horizontally by a concentric passageway, the diazoma. The upper part of the cavea is known as the epitheatre. The front-row seats of the lower cavea and epitheatre were reserved for privileged persons. These seats of honour might stand out by their construction, or even be luxurious stone thrones, sometimes bearing the names of the dignitaries for whom they were intended (proedriae). Access to the orchestra was via two entrances on either side, the parodoi. Very often a drainage duct for the rainwater coming off the cavea ran round the orchestra, in front of the first row of seats. The stage buildings, in their fully developed form, almost always combine a stage, with a ground floor and first floor, with a proscenium. The proscenium usually takes the form of a small row of pillars, columns or semi-columns in the Doric or Ionic style. Paintings were placed in the spaces between the columns of the proscenium, while each of its three doorways, similarly painted, is conventionally thought to have led to the palace, the countryside or the port. The stage building always includes an upper storey, its floor level with the proscenium roof. Certain stages also included side rooms that served as outbuildings, while many stage buildings are connected to porticos (stoai). In some theatres, an underground passage from the stage to the orchestra, known as the “Charonian steps”, allowed the gods of the netherworld to appear and intervene in the actions of the characters on stage. The actors’ performance area, the logeion, was between the stage building and the orchestra. With the passage of time and the development of the stage building, this was moved to the flat proscenium roof or to special raised platforms. In Roman times, most Greek theatres were turned into arenas, adapted to the new types of spectacle which became popular during this period. Protective structures were added for the audience, while the orchestra area was enlarged to host gladiatorial combats and wild beast fights. In some cases water cisterns were placed in the orchestra for water sports and other spectacles. The theatres were built to host plays, which were originally closely linked to religious rituals. They later evolved independently of religion, culminating in performances by actors and a chorus (combining recital and dancing), with all the features of a theatrical production as we would think of it today, involving stage direction, scenery, stage machinery and theatrical equipment. During the course of their evolution, theatres acquired a central role in the function of the city-state, and became multifunctional, used not only for dramatic and religious performances but also for political purposes linked to the institution of Democracy. It is telling that the ancient traveller Pausanias regards the theatre as one of the basic urban features of a Greek city, along with the agora, the gymnasium and the public administrative buildings, and an important element in recognising cities in the East as being Greek

  • Cheimarros Tower, Naxos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Naxos 25.519974E, 36.995901N

  • Theatre of Dionysos in Athens: Region of Attica, Regional Unit of Central Attica 23.727730E, 37.970383N

  • Theatre of the Amphiareion: Region of Attica, Regional Unit of Eastern Attica 23.845344E, 38.291581N

  • Theatre of Epidaurus: Region of Peloponnese, Regional Unit of Argolis 23.079200E, 37.596000N

  • Theatre of Megalopolis: Region of Peloponnese, Regional Unit of Arcadia 22.127258E, 37.410170N

  • Theatre of Argos: Region of Peloponnese, Regional Unit of Argolis 22.7196E, 37.6316N

  • Theatre of Delphi: Region of Central Greece, Regional Unit of Fhocis 22.500706E, 38.482450N

  • Theatre of Eretria: Region of Central Greece, Regional Unit of Euboea 23.790644E, 38.398603N

  • Theatre of Larissa I: Region of Thessaly, Regional Unit of Larissa 22.415256Ε,39.640315Ν

  • Theatre of Delos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Mykonos 25.268105Ε, 37.397040Ν

  • Theatre of Melos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Melos 24.421035Ε, 36.737823Ν

  • Theatre of Lindos: Region of South Aegean, Regional Unit of Rhodes 28.086576Ε, 36.089886Ν

  • Theatre of Oeniadae: Region of West Greece, Regional Unit of Aetoloakarnia 21.199028Ε, 38.409614Ν

  • Theatre of Dodona. Region of Epirus, Regional Unit of Ioannina 20.787700 Ε, 39.546492Ν

  • Theatre of Aptera: Region of Crete, Regional Unit of Chania 24.141436Ε, 35.461272Ν

  • Theatre of Maronia: Region of East Macedonia and Thrace, Regional Unit of Rhodope 25ο 31.155΄Ε, 40ο 52.727΄Ν



  • Wyspy Greckie:


    Średniowieczne miasto Rodos (K II, IV, V / 1988) W latach 1309-1523 wyspę zajmowali joannici, którzy przekształcili ją w miasto warowne. Następnie wyspa przechodziła kolejno pod panowanie tureckie i włoskie. Górne Miasto, z Pałacem Wielkich Mistrzów, Szpitalem i Ulicą Kawalerów, stanowi jeden z najpiękniejszych gotyckich zespołów miejskich. W Dolnym Mieście znajdują się zarówno budowle gotyckie, jak i meczety, łaźnie publiczne oraz inne zabudowania z okresu ottomańskiego.





    Delos (K II, III, IV, VI / 1990) Delos, maleńka wyspa archipelagu Cyklad, była miejscem narodzin Apollina. Jego sanktuarium przyciągało pielgrzymów z całej Grecji, a miasto było kwitnącym portem handlowym. Wyspa Delos stanowi unikalne świadectwo cywilizacji basenu Morza Egejskiego, następujących po sobie od III tysiąclecia p.n.e. po czasy wczesnochrześcijańskie. Rozległe stanowisko archeologiczne daje obraz wielkiego, kosmopolitycznego portu Morza Śródziemnego.





    Zabytkowe centrum (Chora) z klasztorem Św. Jana Teologa oraz Jaskinią Apokalipsy na wyspie Patmos (K III, IV, VI / 1999) Wysepka Patmos w archipelagu Dodekanezu uznawana jest za miejsce, gdzie święty Jan Teolog napisał swą Ewangelię oraz Apokalipsę. W końcu X w. powstał tam klasztor poświęcony “ulubionemu uczniowi", który stał się odtąd miejscem pielgrzymek oraz nauczania greckiej religii prawosławnej. Ten wspaniały kompleks klasztorny góruje nad wyspą, a w przylegającym doń miasteczku Chora znajdują się liczne budowle sakralne i świeckie.





    Stare Miasto Korfu (K IV/ 2007) Stare Miasto Korfu z zespołem bizantyjskich fortyfikacji, których początki sięgają VIII wieku p.n.e., położone nad samym brzegiem Adriatyku. Począwszy od XV wieku wyspa przechodziła kolejno we władanie Wenecji, Francji, Wielkiej Brytanii i Grecji. Wiele razy skutecznie broniła granic państwa weneckiego przed naporem armii osmańskiej. Twierdza Korfu to przykład doskonale obmyślanej budowli wojskowej, zaprojektowanej przez inżyniera architekta Sanmicheli’ego. Na oryginalny styl współczesnego Korfu składają się pozostałości starego weneckiego systemu budowli obronnych i nowych neoklasycystycznych budowli powstałych w XIX i XX wieku.






    Pythagorion i Herajon na wyspie Samos (K II, III / 1992) Począwszy od III tysiąclecia p.n.e. na Samos, wysepce Morza Egejskiego położonej w pobliżu Azji Mniejszej, nastąpiło po sobie kilka kolejnych cywilizacji. Ich pozostałością są m.in. ruiny Pythagorionu, dawnego warownego miasta portowego z zabytkami greckimi i rzymskimi oraz wspaniały tunel- wodociąg, jak również Herajon, sanktuarium Hery z Samos.





    Fortress of Spinalonga
    Tentative list

    Spinalonga is a barren, arid rocky islet, with an area of 85,000 sq. m., lying in the mouth of the natural harbour of Elounda in Lasithi Prefecture, Crete. The islet was fortified in antiquity, to protect the ancient city of Olous. Towards the end of the 16th century, the Venetians, as part of their great fortification works to defend Crete, built on Spinalonga one of the most important bastion-type seaward fortresses of the Mediterranean, designed according to the bastion system of fortification by Genese Bressani and Latino Orsini. At strategic points in the fortifications are set the Michel and Moceniga or Barbariga demilunes, major works of fortification architecture. During the Cretan War (1645-1669), refugees sought shelter on the islet, as did rebels (“Chainides”) who used it as a base to harrass the Ottomans. Under the terms of the treaty for the surrender of Chandax (Heraklion) in 1669, Spinalonga remained a Venetian possession. In 1715, following a siege, the islet was surrendered to the Ottomans, the Venetian garrison left and the remaining 600 inhabitants were taken captive.



    From 1715 onwards, Spinalonga was settled by Muslims, who built their houses on the foundations of the Venetian buildings. The village flourished after the mid-19th century, until by 1881 it housed a population of 1,112 and was the largest Muslim commercial centre of Merabello Bay. The village houses were arranged in a stepped pattern across the west and south sides of the islet. At the end of the 19th century it is estimated that there were approximately 200 homes and 25 shops or workshops on Spinalonga. Today many well-built two-storey houses and shops remain; their morphology and symmetrical proportions are indicative of the principles of local and Balkan architectural tradition. In 1904, during the period of the Cretan State, Spinalonga was chosen as the site of a Leper Hospital. Sufferers who were sent to live on the island survived on State funding and charitable donations. Their hard, wretched life did not weaken their will to live. They organised their home, fell in love, married, had children. After the Leper Hospital was shut down in 1957, the islet remained deserted and uninhabited. In 1976 it was designated an archaeological site. Today it is an organised archaeological site with hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.

    Petrified Forest of Lesvos
    Tentative list




    Located on the island of Lesvos (North Aegean Region), one of the most important natural heritage monuments in the world, the Petrified Forest of Lesvos, is a unique testament to the ecosystem that once existed in the Aegean region during the Miocene Epoch. The forest consists of hundreds of fossilized trunks, standing or downed, coniferous or fruit-bearing, which are scattered over an area of 15,000 hectares in major concentrations within the protected region and at many other sites in the layers of volcanic rocks. To protect and promote the wonders of this ancient forest, the Greek state declared the area a Protected Natural Monument in 1985

    Minoan Palatial Centres (Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, Zakros, Kydonia)
    Tentative list

    Crete, prominently and strategically located in the East Mediterranean Basin, formed the bridge between the peoples and cultures of three continents, Europe, Africa and Asia, and was the cradle of a splendid prehistoric civilisation in the land of Greece, the Minoan civilisation. The civilisation was named “Minoan” by Arthur Evans, the excavator of Knossos, which, according to myths preserved by ancient writers, was the seat of King Minos. The Minoan civilisation is connected to a great chapter in Greek mythology: the abduction of Europa by Zeus in the form of a bull, the ingenious Daedalus and his son Icarus, the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, the seven youths and seven maidens sent from Athens as tribute to Minos, the Athenian hero Theseus - who, with the assistance of Ariadne, rid his city of this blood-tax - the bronze giant Talus and the Argonauts, are all inextricably linked with the civilisation of Crete and its palaces, and have been a source of inspiration not only for ancient Greek culture but also for world art, music and literature.


    Crete, prominently and strategically located in the East Mediterranean Basin, formed the bridge between the peoples and cultures of three continents, Europe, Africa and Asia, and was the cradle of a splendid prehistoric civilisation in the land of Greece, the Minoan civilisation. The civilisation was named “Minoan” by Arthur Evans, the excavator of Knossos, which, according to myths preserved by ancient writers, was the seat of King Minos. The Minoan civilisation is connected to a great chapter in Greek mythology: the abduction of Europa by Zeus in the form of a bull, the ingenious Daedalus and his son Icarus, the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, the seven youths and seven maidens sent from Athens as tribute to Minos, the Athenian hero Theseus - who, with the assistance of Ariadne, rid his city of this blood-tax - the bronze giant Talus and the Argonauts, are all inextricably linked with the civilisation of Crete and its palaces, and have been a source of inspiration not only for ancient Greek culture but also for world art, music and literature.

    Gorge of Samaria National Park
    Tentative list

    The Samaria Gorge is the acknowledged natural site and symbol of the island of Crete. It holds a unique and distinguished position in Cretan, Greek and Mediterranean history, as a place that has served throughout history as an ark for life and a haven of freedom. It is also identified with the unceasing production of the material and immaterial cultural heritage of Crete through the ages. The Lefka Ori (White Mountains), the largest and westernmost mountain range of Crete, dominate the southwest part of the island, covering almost 7% of the total surface of the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean. More than 50 peaks of the impressive mountain range exceed 2,000 meters in altitude, while the highest, Pachnes, reaches a height of 2,453 meters above the Libyan Sea to the south and the Sea of Crete to the north of the island. The island of Crete is, justifiably, called a land of gorges, being cut by dozens, mainly running north to south. No other gorge, however, has the glamour and uniqueness of the Samaria Gorge. The Lefka Ori and the gorges that intersect them are a paradise for biodiversity and form a landscape of unique geological value and beauty. There, isolated from human presence, singular ecosystems have evolved, with dozens of endemic species and subspecies, providing shelter to the famous Cretan Agrimi Goat (Capra aegagrus cretica) and other rare species such as the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the Cretan Wildcat (Felis silvestris cretensis), Blasius’ Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus blasii), as well as the endemic plants Zelkova abelicea and Bupleurum kakiskalae. The Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) is found in the sea caves on the south coast of the National Park.


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